Saturday, November 17, 2012

"They All Matter" Lets Find The Cure Blog Hop

Welcome to the "They All Matter" Lets Find The Cure Blog Hop. This hop was created to recognize all the different kinds of Cancer that are out there. I know that there are a lot of cancers out there that people are unaware of and we wanted  to bring some awareness to them and hopefully be able to show people who have these forms of cancer that they all matter.

Here are some basic facts about Cancer that everyone should know.

What Is Cancer?
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death. Cancer is caused by both external factors (tobacco, infectious organisms, chemicals, and radiation) and internal factors (inherited mutations, hormones, immune conditions, and mutations that occur from metabolism). These causal factors may act together or in sequence to initiate or promote the development of cancer. Ten or more years often pass between exposure to external factors and detectable cancer. Cancer is treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy, and targeted therapy.

Can Cancer Be Prevented?
All cancers caused by cigarette smoking and heavy use of alcohol could be prevented completely. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2012 about 173,200 cancer deaths will be caused by tobacco use. Scientific evidence suggests that about one-third of the 577,190 cancer deaths expected to occur in 2012 will be related to overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition and thus could also be prevented. Certain cancers are related to infectious agents, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and others, and could be prevented through behavioral changes, vaccines, or antibiotics. In addition, many of the more than 2 million skin cancers that are diagnosed annually could be prevented by protecting skin from intense sun exposure and avoiding indoor tanning. Regular screening examinations by a health care professional can result in the detection and removal of precancerous growths, as well as the diagnosis of cancers at an early stage, when they are most treatable. Cancers of the cervix, colon, and rectum can be prevented by removal of precancerous tissue. Cancers that can be diagnosed early through screening include cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, cervix, prostate, oral cavity, and skin. However, screening is known to reduce mortality only for cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, and cervix. A heightened awareness of changes in the breast or skin may also result in detection of these tumors at earlier stages. Cancers that can be prevented or detected earlier by screening account for at least half of all new cancer cases.

Who Is at Risk of Developing Cancer?
Anyone can develop cancer. Since the risk of being diagnosed with cancer increases with age, most cases occur in adults who are middle aged or older. About 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in persons 55 years of age and older. Cancer researchers use the word “risk” in different ways, most commonly expressing risk as lifetime risk or relative risk.

How Many People Alive Today Have Ever Had Cancer?
The National Cancer Institute estimates that nearly 12 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive in January 2008. Some of these individuals were cancer free, while others still had evidence of cancer and may have been undergoing treatment.

How Many New Cases Are Expected to Occur This Year?
About 1,638,910 new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed in 2012. This estimate does not include carcinoma in situ (noninvasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder, and does not include basal and squamous cell skin cancers, which are not required to be reported to cancer registries.

How Many People Are Expected to Die of Cancer This Year?

In 2012, about 577,190 Americans are expected to die of cancer, more than 1,500 people a day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease, accounting for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths.

What Percentage of People Survive Cancer?
The 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers diagnosed between 2001 and 2007 is 67%, up from 49% in 1975-1977. The improvement in survival reflects both progress in diagnosing certain cancers at an earlier stage and improvements in treatment. Survival statistics vary greatly by cancer type and stage at diagnosis. Relative survival compares survival among cancer patients to that of people not diagnosed with cancer who are of the same age, race, and sex. It represents the percentage of cancer patients who are alive after some designated time period (usually 5 years) relative to persons without cancer. It does not distinguish between patients who have been cured and those who have relapsed or are still in treatment. While 5-year relative survival is useful in monitoring progress in the early detection and treatment of cancer, it does not represent the proportion of people who are cured permanently, since cancer deaths can occur beyond 5 years after diagnosis.

I have choose to talk and give some statistics on 2 different kinds of cancer that are close to my heart in some way.

 Lung Cancer
An estimated 226,160 new cases of lung cancer are expected in 2012, accounting for about 14% of cancer diagnoses. The incidence rate has been declining in men over the past two decades, from a high of 102 (cases per 100,000 men) in 1984 to 72 in 2008. In women, the rate has just begun to decrease after a long period of increase. From 2004 to 2008, lung cancer incidence rates decreased by 1.9% per year in men and by 0.3% per year in women. Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women. An estimated 160,340 deaths, accounting for about 28% of all cancer deaths, are expected to occur in 2012. Death rates began declining in men in 1991; from 2004 to 2008, rates decreased 2.6% per year. Lung cancer death rates did not begin declining in women until 2003; from 2004 to 2008, rates decreased by 0.9% per year. Gender differences in lung cancer mortality patterns reflect historical differences between men and women in the uptake and reduction of cigarette smoking over the past 50 years.

Signs and symptoms of Lung Cancer: Symptoms may include persistent cough, sputum streaked with blood, chest pain, voice change, and recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis.

Risk factors: Cigarette smoking is by far the most important risk factor for lung cancer; risk increases with both quantity and duration of smoking. Cigar and pipe smoking also increase risk. Exposure to radon gas released from soil and building materials is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in Europe and North America. Other risk factors include occupational or environmental exposure to secondhand smoke, asbestos (particularly among smokers), certain metals (chromium, cadmium, arsenic), some organic chemicals, radiation, air pollution, and paint (occupational). Risk is also probably increased among people with a medical history of tuberculosis. Genetic susceptibility plays a contributing role in the development of lung cancer.

Early detection: Recently published results from a large clinical trial showed that annual screening with chest x-ray does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Newer tests, such as low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scans and molecular markers in sputum, have produced promising results in detecting lung cancers at earlier, more operable stages in high-risk patients. Results from the National Lung Screening Trial, a clinical trial designed to determine the effectiveness of lung cancer screening in high-risk individuals, showed 20% fewer lung cancer deaths among current and former heavy smokers who were screened with spiral CT compared to standard chest x-ray. However, it is not known how relevant these results are to individuals with a lesser smoking history compared with the study participants, who had a history of very heavy smoking – the equivalent of at least a pack of cigarettes per day for 30 years. In addition, the potential risks associated with screening, including cumulative radiation exposure from multiple CT scans, and unnecessary lung biopsy and surgery, have not yet been evaluated. It will take some time to develop formal guidelines based on a careful evaluation of the benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening an asymptomatic population at high risk for lung cancer. In the interim, the Society has issued lung cancer screening guidance for adults who would have met the criteria for participation in the screening trial.

Treatment: Lung cancer is classified as small cell (14%) or non-small cell (85%) for the purposes of treatment. Based on type and stage of cancer, treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies such as bevacizumab (Avastin), erlotinib (Tarceva), and crizotinib (Xalkori). For localized non-small cell lung cancers, surgery is usually the treatment of choice, and survival for most of these patients is improved by giving chemotherapy after surgery. Because the disease has usually spread by the time it is discovered, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often used, sometimes in combination with surgery. Advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients are usually treated with chemotherapy, targeted drugs, or some combination of the two. Chemotherapy alone or combined with radiation is the usual treatment of choice for small cell lung cancer; on this regimen, a large percentage of patients experience remission, though the cancer often returns.

Survival: The 1-year relative survival for lung cancer increased from 37% in 1975-1979 to 43% in 2003-2006, largely due to improvements in surgical techniques and combined therapies. However, the 5-year survival rate for all stages combined is only 16%. The 5-year survival rate is 52% for cases detected when the disease is still localized, but only 15% of lung cancers are diagnosed at this early stage. The 5-year survival for small cell lung cancer (6%) is lower than that for non-small cell (17%).

Pancreatic Cancer
An estimated 43,920 new cases of pancreatic cancer are expected to occur in the US in 2012. Since 2004, incidence rates of pancreatic cancer have been increasing by 1.5% per year.

An estimated 37,390 deaths are expected to occur in 2012, about the same number in women (18,540) as in men (18,850). During 2004 to 2008, the death rate for pancreatic cancer increased by 0.4% per year.

Signs and symptoms: Cancer of the pancreas often develops without early symptoms. Symptoms may include weight loss, pain in the upper abdomen that may radiate to the back, and occasionally glucose intolerance (high blood glucose levels). Tumors that develop near the common bile duct may cause a blockage that leads to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), which can sometimes allow the tumor to be diagnosed at an early stage.

Risk factors: Tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use increase the risk of pancreatic cancer; incidence rates are about twice as high for cigarette smokers as for nonsmokers. Risk also increases with a family history of pancreatic cancer and a personal history of pancreatitis, diabetes, obesity, and possibly high levels of alcohol consumption. Individuals with Lynch syndrome and certain other genetic syndromes are also at increased risk. Though evidence is still accumulating, consumption of red meat may increase risk.

Early detection: At present, there is no widely used method for the early detection of pancreatic cancer, though research is under way in this area.
Treatment: Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are treatment options that may extend survival and/or relieve symptoms in many patients, but seldom produce a cure. Less than 20% of patients are candidates for surgery because pancreatic cancer is usually detected after it has spread beyond the pancreas; even when surgery is performed, it often cannot remove all of the cancer. For patients who do undergo surgery, adjuvant treatment with the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine lengthens survival. The targeted anticancer drug erlotinib (Tarceva) has demonstrated a small improvement in advanced pancreatic cancer survival when used in combination with gemcitabine. Clinical trials with several new agents, combined with radiation and surgery, may offer improved survival and should be considered as a treatment option.

Survival: For all stages combined, the 1-and 5-year relative survival rates are 26% and 6%, respectively. Even for those people diagnosed with local disease, the 5-year survival is only 22%. More than half of patients are diagnosed at a distant stage, for which 5-year survival is 2%.

I Know this has been a very long post to get through and I hope you can understand that we are mainly doing this hop to bring awareness to others about all the different kinds of cancer that are out there. Everyone that is participating in this hop has been touched in some way by cancer. This hop has a special meaning to each and everyone of them. Thank you for taking the time to read through all their post and we hope and pray that we are giving you all some insight to all these different kinds of Cancer.

Please hop over to Ashley's Blog next thank you.

1 comment:

  1. How exactly does the blog hop work? I am following you now, and hopping over to "Ashley."